Let’s Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle Through Nutrition Food Labels

By: Abbey Stacey

Obesity has continued to be a major national health concern and it’s increasing the chances of developing heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and various types of cancers. Since there is a link between dietary habits and obesity, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has attempted to introduce changes to nutrition food labels to make it easier for consumers to comprehend. If the FDA is able to promote greater utilization of the nutrition label to regular food and calorie intake, it could take a step in a positive direction to improve peoples’ dietary choices.

Self-efficacy, response efficacy, and prior nutrition knowledge have all been shown to be important determinants of consumers’ information search and behavior. Self-efficacy is when an individual believes they have the required skills to successfully perform a task. Consumers who have high self-efficacy will have confidence in themselves to read a nutrition label and be able to make that healthy choice. If a consumer doesn’t have high self-efficacy, they are less likely to use the nutrition label to make a decision because they don’t believe that they would know what the right choice is based off of the label. Response efficacy refers to an individual who believes a certain behavior is effective in yielding a required outcome or preventing a negative one. This goes to show that consumers believe that reading nutrition labels and information on food products prior to purchase will be effective in maintaining a healthy diet and will prevent diet-related diseases. Lastly is nutrition knowledge, which means people who have prior knowledge are apt to engage in more information search compared to consumers who have less nutrition experience. If consumers have prior knowledge they are bound to make better food selections, more nutritious food choices, utilize nutrition information, and improve dietary behaviors.

Four Hypotheses in the Study

H1: Consumers’ perceived self-efficacy will lead to a greater intention to use the nutrition label when making food consumption decisions.

H2: Consumers’ perceived response efficacy will lead to a greater intention to use the nutrition label when making food consumption decisions.

H3: Consumers’ prior nutrition knowledge will lead to a greater intention to use the nutrition label when making food consumption decisions.

H4: Consumers’ intention to use the nutrition label when making food consumption decisions will lead to more healthy nutrition behavior.

Making a decision can depend on the consumer’s level of involvement and how often they purchase certain items. For low involvement situations, habitual decision making may occur, in which a consumer may not make a healthy choice because of the habit of getting the same type of food each time. Sometimes this can be due to low cost, the brand being familiar to the customer, or of there is little thought, search, or time given to the purchase. These consumers could potentially be an example of those who possess little nutrition knowledge in which they don’t look at the nutrition facts and are only looking for what they are familiar with. This also connects back to having low self-efficacy because they don’t have the confidence to turn the package around and read the food label. If a customer has too much knowledge on nutrition labels, a perceived risk could be that it takes them longer to make a decision. When it takes customers longer to make a decision, it becomes more important to them, and it ends up taking more resources than are required.

In the study, all measures were assessed on seven-point Likert-type scales (strongly disagree and strongly agree), with a total of 18 questions split up between self-efficacy, response efficacy, nutrition knowledge, intention, and nutrition behavior. What the study ended up finding was that all four hypotheses were statistically significant. For hypothesis 1, P-value was <0.05, hypothesis 2, P-value was <0.01, hypothesis 3, P-value was <0.01, and hypothesis 4 was P-value <0.01.

The results of this study highlighted the importance of self-efficacy, response efficacy, and consumers’ nutrition knowledge in utilizing the information on food labels. If the intention to use the food label is there, then the use of the nutrition label is related to more healthful eating behaviors and choices. For future directions, consumer nutrition education campaigns may find it more effective to focus on communicating and explaining specific nutrient information as opposed to presenting more general information. If consumers know what to look for when reading a food label they are more likely to use it and comprehend the information in a constructive way. Educating consumers about diet-disease relationships and other specifics of the nutrition structure of food products empowers consumers with the knowledge that may enhance their likelihood to use food labels. If practitioners, public policy makers, and marketers were able better understand what consumers are looking at before purchasing a food product, they would be able to target those certain areas. To better educate and emphasize messages to consumers, they could also design programs that target people will lower levels of nutrition knowledge. Aiming to better educate consumers on food labels will create a healthier population and we will eventually start to see chronic illnesses and health costs decrease.



Understanding Mindsets for Smarter Marketing

By: Latika Karnani

Implicit theory of intelligence refers to the fundamental underlying beliefs regarding whether or not intelligence or abilities can change. According to this idea, there are two types of people: people who have fixed mindset or who have a growth mindset. People with fixed mindsets believe that intelligence and skills are inherent. People ‘are who they are’ and there is nothing one can do about it. Since these people are concerned about whether they have good traits or not, their main focus is to demonstrate their abilities. If they don’t possess it, they may go at lengths to hide it. On the other hand, people with a growth mindset believe people can substantially change and that learning and experience can foster development. These people are willing to make mistakes or appear foolish in the short run in order to maximize their development over time. There are various ways to leverage the knowledge of implicit theory of intelligence. It influences product interest, brand preference, manager’s behavior and even company image.

Fixed vs. Growth Mindsets

Since skills are inherent, according to fixed mindset people, efforts is something they feel is not required. They enjoy effortless success. Whereas people with a growth mindset believe that efforts foster development. So products that display that they are effortless in use would interest fixed mindset people. Products that need effort would be attractive to people with a growth mindset. If a product can be fixed or the service improved, people with a growth mindset may be more likely than those with a fixed mindset to give the establishment an opportunity to do so. For example, growth mindset individuals may be relatively satisfied with information about how an organization plans to improve in the future. They may be more willing to try the service again, accepting relief in the form of a coupon or voucher for future service. In contrast, people with a fixed mindset, having had a bad experience, might be more skeptical of whether the company can improve its products or service in general. Because of this, people with a fixed mindset may insist on monetary compensation for their loss or dissatisfaction.

If this information is leveraged properly it could reap exponential benefits. If sales persons are trained to identify such people, they could sell their products differently. For example, if you are selling Hydroxycut- a weight reducing pill, to make the product more attractive to a fixed mindset person, you might show before and after pictures. But if the sales person figures out that the person has a growth mindset, he would talk about the active ingredients of the product and how ephedrine in it would boost their metabolism, so that they can run more and be more active; the product will be more appealing.

While people chronically adopt one mindset or the other, mindsets can also be situationally activated. Clear and salient information in the local environment can shift people’s mindsets at least temporarily. It is an interesting empirical question as to how ads may most effectively induce a mindset in consumers. Ads that begin by featuring the development or change of the actor (e.g., “I was once a 97 lb. weakling, but now…”) may put viewers in a growth mindset when considering the message that follows. Other ads that encourage consumers to imagine what traits the product will confer on them may induce a more fixed mindset in the moment.


Mary C Murphy (2015.06.05). Mindsets shape consumer behavior. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1057740815000650


An App is an App, or is it really? How Apps Drive Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategies

By: CJ Enos

We live in a world of apps.  Our day-to-day activity at some point revolves around an app.  In the beginning, apps were primarily used for gaming.  Today apps have evolved to much more and, for the most part, whatever you want to know, track, play or do, there’s an app for that.

If you have a tablet or smart phone then you have used an app for one reason or another.  Banking, driving directions, keeping notes, music, gaming, reading, shopping and the list goes on.  These corporate branded aps are changing the way brands are connecting to consumers and the company’s marketing approaches.  In addition, apps can have a large impact on a company’s bottom line.  It has been estimated that the average person spends about 30 hours per month using mobile apps and 40% of smart phone users browse app stores for apps to download.  Apps are a key role in the, “I want to know, go and buy” moments.

A study from Iowa state university showed a direct link between app use, purchase behaviors of consumers and an increase in sales.  The study also found, the more engaging the app, the more time customers will spend using the app, and thus the more money customers will spend, whether direct or indirect purchase from the app.

The study was conducted on a mobile app used for a loyalty reward program.  The study looked at data, such as number of times consumers looked up their points balance, transaction history, and reward items available to them and location check INs at stores affiliated with the rewards program.  The goal was to see if spending was influenced by the interactive features on the App.

The results found a correlation between consumer behavior and the bottom line of the company, even without apps that included a purchase feature.  The interactive features were enough of a draw for consumers to use the apps and drive sales.

Key takeaways from this study are corporate branded developed apps should not be ignored by companies.  (It is estimated that by 2017 the number of apps will rise beyond 268 billion.) Branded apps are a powerful way for companies to build a deeper relationship with customers.  Apps also change the marketing strategy in that they can complement a brands offline experience with in store special offers, drive sales and help connect the brands with its customers.

I agree that apps are a powerful way for brands to build deeper relationships with customers.  I also agree that they can significantly increase the bottom line.  If I can use an app that is readily at your fingertips and it is engaging enough, then the first place I go is to the app.  Searching websites, and logging onto websites, for me are a thing of the past and I only use a website when I have to.

Articles used:





Why go to the convenience store when you can goPuff?

By: Gabrielle Pecher

goPuff , an on demand delivery app, was created by Drexel University students, Yakir Gola and Rafael Ilishayev, in their sophomore year of college. These best friends, college roommates, and business partners sought an opportunity to capitalize on todays “on-demand” society upon realizing there wasn’t a business that offered everything you need 24/7. The app originally launched with hookahs and munchies, but quickly pivoted due to a high demand and interest in other products. However, they decided to keep the name “goPuff” because it sparked interest among consumers.

Today, goPuff now offers over 3,000 products that fall into 20 different categories. These products include eggs, pots and pans, iPhone chargers, toasters, cleaning items, and much more. Most recently, goPuff introduced goBeer, in which customers can have a 12-pack of brews delivered directly to their front door. These 3,000+ items have been noted as being the most popular among consumer convenience needs and are priced comparatively to convenience stores. This new service offers these items at affordable prices, with the convenience of delivery, without the upcharge.

goPuff’s fleet of independent drivers can easily grab and deliver any of these products within 30 minutes or less, and most customers claim their order typically arrives in about 20 minutes. The delivery fee is a low cost of $1.95, and for an order over $49, the delivery is free. Customers can pay with cash or can link their credit card to goPuff’s app, which is available on Apple, Android and Google phones. goPuff drivers make about $130 to $140 in an eight hour shift between $2 per dollar delivery and then tips. Currently, goPuff delivers Monday- Sunday from noon to 4:30 a.m., but plans to extend those hours to 24 hours a day within the next three months.

Today, goPuff has about 100 employees and is operating in 8 major cities: Philadelphia, Phoenix, Boston, New York City, Austin, Denver, Washington D.C., and Seattle.

Why does this service matter to marketers? Companies like goPuff are targeting a specific demographic – the millennial generation, who want high quality service, but want the process to be quick, easy, cost- effective and –  most of all – they want it now without having to wait. These companies are catering to today’s “on-demand” society’s needs where convenience within convenience is becoming a trend to accommodate these types of people and those who live an on-the-go lifestyle who may not have the time to get to places such as the convenience store. When consumers chose a service such as goPuff they are looking for 3 elements. The first element is how the product or service reduces time, consideration, and energy. The second element is the availability of the product or service at the most convenient time, such as not having to wait. Last, the third element is one which concerns the specific timing of the convenience, such as the purchase and the transportation involved.

Today, convenience is everything, given the fact that people now seem to live life on a whim. We have become so accustomed to instant gratification due to advancements in technology that now we don’t want to  wait or take the time to do anything, when a service like goPuff can do it for us at a low charge accompanied by a short wait time. Given the success of these services, especially among the millennial generation, I think this has forced marketers to think about whether this kind of service will shape consumer experiences in the future. Will people, at least millenials, eventually stop shopping at supermarkets and making fewer and fewer trips to the convenience store? Will the in-store experience become obsolete in the next several years? These are questions for researchers and marketers to think about going forward as demands are increasing and constantly changing. Given the fact that I am 23 years old and part of the millennial generation, I can say that this service is ideal for us 20-something year olds who are constantly on the go, and when we need or want something, we want it now – at a low cost, of course. New and upcoming companies like goPuff understand that, which is why they have been so successful. More and more people are catching on to this, which is why these types of services, I think, will become increasingly more popular in the next few years.

At goPuff, they take convenience seriously, and for them it’s about bringing you what you need, as soon you need it, with nothing but a few taps and 30 minutes in between. goPuff allows you to carry a sleek and effortless convenience store, smoke shop, and mini-mart right in your pocket. Now, how convenient is that?

To learn more about goPuff take a look at these articles:








All Marketers are Liars

By: Jin Wang

When I saw the title of the book for the first time, I felt that it was very interesting. Although I know that many people think marketing is to lie to customers and to trick them to buy products, it is the first time for me to see an author being so straightforward to tell the readers that all marketers are liars.

Unlike the traditional textbooks, this book is not to teach the readers about product positioning, or the 4Ps. The author of this book also did not talk about boring marketing theories. Instead, he put forward a creative ideal: marketers should start communicating with their potential customers with an almost-true story that can arouse the customers’ interest in the products. Marketing people need to tell stories. A good story’s purpose is to win the trust of the listeners. Successful marketing people never simply talk about products’ features or the benefits of using the products. They tell stories that consumers are willing to believe. They are not trying to change the worldview of the consumers’, but instead they create their stories in accordance with the consumer’s worldview.

In other words, the author believes that in marketing strategies, the description about the products’ quality, characteristics and prices can not influence consumers and make them have the desire to purchase. The main factor that can influence customers’ decisions is whether or not the products are in line with the consumer’s worldview. Each product has a story behind it, and creating a good story plays an important role in the product selling process.

After stating the importance of the stories, the author then taught the readers how to create such stories. Firstly, marketers need to understand the consumer’s worldview, because the world outlook is relatively fixed and it is hard to change people’s worldview. But it is easy to find and meet the customers’ worldview. Just like the fact that it is difficult to force other people to accept your views by refuting your ideas, but it is easily to convince others to agree with you after acknowledging their opinions first. Meanwhile, the author of the book also emphasized that such stories are not  lies. A good story can make people recall personal experience that is similar to some parts of the story. Such connections can inspire consumers and awaken their curiosity about the products you want to promote.

In the book, the author described how Coca-Cola promoted their products during WWII as a example of such marketing stories. Due to the impact of the war, Coca-Cola had difficulties to expand their market both domestically and internationally. The company’s second president Robert Woodruff set a goal and promised that every American soldier can drink Coca-Cola whenever and wherever for only 5 cents. After the goal was set, Coca-Cola sent 248 people abroad with the army. This move helped Coca-Cola to expand their market to all over the world. The company also built  64 new factories during the war period. Coca-Cola noticed and made a good use of the fact that U.S. soldiers missed their normal life back home. The company’s right decision helped themselves to promote the products effectively during the war.

According to the author, if marketers still think they should advertise the features and benefits of using their products, they are probably wrong. And this book explains how the market shifted from fulfilling customers’ needs to giving products that they are curious about and eager to know. Customers have countless options to choose in the marketplace. And they have everything they want. They are bombarded with thousands of marketing messages a day. Marketers would not break through by yelling louder. The amount of information and the complexity of the marketplace have made it hard for marketers to communicate a product’s positioning in one sentence. So framing the right story for target customers can let the marketers explain effectively what they are promoting and what they can contribute to the customers’ lives.

This book explained the important role of stories in marketing strategies. Nowadays, when shopping, people care more about how they feel than what the products can actually do. As the book described, the reason behind buying a pair of Puma is to make oneself feel more confident but not for the quality of the shoes. Another example in the book was the Silk manufactures’ strategy. They put their products in the refrigerators of supermarkets not to keep the milk fresh but to make customers think that their products are fresh. It works very well. These are some examples of the power of effective story-telling in marketing.

In the book, the author emphasized that marketers are not liars, and they are just storytellers. Contrarily, the book argued that the consumers are liars as consumers lie to themselves every day about what they want to wear, where they want to live, and what they do at work. I agree with the author that successful marketers are just the providers of stories that consumers choose to believe.


Godin, Seth. “All marketers are liars.” New York: Portfolio (2005).

Why we ‘fall’ in love and why we ‘raise’ a question?

By: Aish Gunti

Emotions and rationality are fundamental elements of life, yet difficult to define and interpret because of their abstract nature. Thus scholars from all over the world from centuries have associated physical elements to understand such abstract concepts. A recent study showed the existence of conceptual metaphors and their association with rationality and emotion. For example, love is a journey where abstract domain of love is made meaningful by associating it with the concrete domain of the journey. “This metaphor might lead one to think of lover as a fellow traveler, or of a shared life goal as destination.”

“In The Wizard of Oz, The Tin Man desires a heart because of his lack of emotions and Scarecrow desires a brain as he lacks intelligence.”

For centuries, humans tend to associate two concrete body parts- the head and the heart- with the more abstract concepts of rationality and emotion, respectively. Thus over time people tend to develop a conceptual link of rationality with ‘up’ or ‘higher’ and emotion with ‘down’ or ‘lower.’ Scholars like Plato and doctrines like Neo-Platonism claim such association have had an immense impact on contemporary culture, affecting even the vocabulary such as ‘falling in love’, and ‘thinking on a higher plane’.

Although rationality and emotion as drivers of human behavior have been intensively studied in consumer behavior since 1994, their relationship with physical verticality has been in the limelight only since 2015. Physical height is a type of concrete experience that has been linked metaphorically to a number of abstract concepts, which include but not limited to power, valence, morality and rationality. Experiments have been conducted to study the existence and association of such metaphors and the verticality domain. Results show that rationality is associated with a higher positioning than emotion along the vertical dimension and such a match will generate a greater positive response.

How different would it be if the word ‘hope’ was at the top of picture rather than the bottom in iconic Hope poster of Obama’s 2008 campaign?

Literature from marketing corroborates with such finding by how a match between physical position and product information increases product evaluation. However, such metaphorical association between verticality and rationality/emotion will be attenuated when people become aware of associations or brands. Thus when a consumer views an ad for an unfamiliar product, he/she forms an opinion based on cues from the ad when compared to a familiar product or brand. In the ‘Hope’ poster, placing hope at the bottom matches with its strong emotional association may not had influenced people with prior strong opinions about Obama, however, led to more positive attitude for those who were undecided or less opinionated.

Association between verticality and rationality/emotion is bidirectional.

Association between verticality and rationality/emotion is bidirectional unlike other abstract domains such as power or morality which are unidirectional. Thus to create an emotional appeal for a product it is recommended to position it lower rather than higher. Likewise a lower placed position is subconsciously associated with emotional domain and not associated with the abstract domain of power, i.e., regardless of positioning, power is always considered higher.

However, caution is suggested when using such metaphors to imply desired abstract domain. Such metaphors exert maximum influence when introduced subtly rather than blatantly, thus deserving more attention.

Information obtained can be applied to all elements of marketing communication as all visual formats from a printed page to a smartphone are an integral part of the process to integrate vertical placement.

It is recommended for marketers to take into consideration rational-emotional association while deciding on vertical positioning of products or information. However, verticality may at times have less of an effect on interpretation when individuals are familiar with a brand.

In conclusion, history has proved the existence of metaphorical association of abstract domains like rationality/emotion with concrete domains like head/heart, respectively and this association is vertical and bidirectional. Unfamiliar stimuli usually have a higher positive response based on such association, whereas previously existing knowledge of familiar stimuli is taken into consideration for decision making. Future research could focus on a subtle introduction of metaphors for maximum response versus a blatant approach.


Cian, Luca., Krishna, Aradhna., Schwarz, Norbert. (2015), “Positioning Rationality and Emotion: Rationality Is Up and Emotion Is Down,” Journal of Consumer Research, Dec2015, Vol. 42 Issue 4, p 632-651.

Snap Decision: The Best Way to Market on Snapchat

By: Chris Cimmino and Sharon Masucci

Snapchat is a messaging app that allows individuals to communicate and share photos and videos with both their immediate friend list as well as the general public. This popular app was launched in 2011 by Evan Spiegel of Stanford University. He created a photo sharing app with his friend Bobby Murphy, who is now the cofounder and programmer behind the app. When a friend of Spiegel said, “I wish the photos I am sending this girl would disappear,” the idea of a photo sharing app with self-destructing pictures was born. After being told by so many that what happens on the internet, stays on the internet, consumers were looking for a loophole in the system and found one with Snapchat. Originally the app was named “Picaboo,” before later being renamed to what we now know as Snapchat. After seeing the short success of Snapchat, Facebook launched an app called Poke in 2012 that was almost identical to its competitor. Poke had failed quickly and Zuckerburg offered Spiegel $3 billion dollars for the app to later be denied. Spiegel knew then that his app was something special that could benefit both the consumer and marketer.

In the world of Snapchat, we must understand that photos and videos are not permanent to view. The sender can select a time window of 0-10 seconds to allow access for a specific recipient before the photo disappears. The user can also place a video on a 24 hour personal story that can be viewed by every person on the individual’s friend list. A user can share their entertaining photos with the general public as well by posting on a “live story” that may only take place in select areas depending on location.

Snapchat has become a powerful social media tool that has its users sending over 700 million “snaps” a day. Snapchat has popular features that keep its users coming back for more. Not only can you send your Snapchats to a select audience of your choice, but you can also edit photos with filters, text, or even a hand drawn doodle with the pen tool. This allows the user to maximize their creativity by giving it their own personal touch with the edit tools. User to user interaction can be fun and easy on Snapchat, but interaction between marketer and user can be a challenge without a clear understanding, of who your audience is and how to reach them in a tight window of opportunity.

Consumer to Consumer interaction seems to vary on Snapchat.  Originally there was concern that Snapchat was just a sexting app, but statistics have proven otherwise. Some of the most popular content that users send on Snapchat include events, people, selfies, and funny things. The majority of users tend to consistently use Snapchat to send their friends funny content. This could include the use of a variety of Snapchat’s new filters that change daily. New filters keep the consumer coming back each day. There is also a wide variety of filters to keep the user busy for an extended period of time.

Consumer to Marketer interaction is done through Snapchat Discover as well as swipeable ads, sponsored content, and geofilters. Snapchat discover provides multiple channels such as CNN, Cosmopolitan, Comedy Central, ESPN, National Geographic, and more. This provides the consumer with multiple outlets to please their entertainment needs. Marketers can advertise through Discover by providing ads that the user can swipe through and provide sponsored content in specific Discover channels to gain brand recognition. Individual channels also allows marketers to target their viewers. They can gain information on the type of person that might view the National Geographic channel, and what other kind of activity they may engage in on Snapchat. This makes it easier for marketers to target their advertisements and gain a competitive advantage through this gathered information. Geofilters can also promote a specific brand. For example, Dunkin Donuts had a geofilter that could only be unlocked at or near Dunkin’ Donuts stores. This geofilter would provide users with a free medium coffee on National Coffee Day. The filter can create awareness and drive interest for Snapchat users to get to their local Dunkin Donuts.

Snapchat is growing at a rapid rate. The real target market for those marketing on Snapchat should be users between the ages 18-34 years old. This age group occupies 71% of all users on the app. Not only are we noticing young people on Snapchat, but an overwhelming majority of users are women at 70%. This does not mean that marketers should only focus on women between the ages of 18-34, but they should understand who their audience is. In order to reach the male population on Snapchat, marketers should utilize sports and live events to gain unique views, which measures the number of people who have opened up the first frame of your Snapchat story for at least 1 second.

The best ways to appeal to your audience on Snapchat is by capturing key moments, offer rewards and coupons, preview new products, inform customers about special sales and events, and behind the scenes footage. A key moment to capture on Snapchat could include something like the New Year’s Eve ball drop in New York City. Many people tune in across the country to watch the ball drop, and Marketers could provide a live story to help those who are not their experience the excitement of being in New York City.

Snapchat brings people to the action. Who doesn’t want to see Tom Brady or their favorite football player in pregame preparing for the Superbowl? With Snapchat live stories, we are able to get an inside look as a consumer that has never been offered before. With regular TV there can be preparation and editing that doesn’t capture the raw material that can be shared in numerous 10 second snaps. Marketers can create awareness of an event or product through these live stories that can be subtle but effective.

Geofilters have become a huge way for marketers to advertise on snapchat. Geofilters are based on your current location. Certain locations such as Times Square and Las Vegas have geofilters that users can take pictures with. The geofilters could include pictures, logos, and town names. These filters can be created by Snapchat, the given community, and brands. If you are a local restaurant in a popular area it could benefit you to create a geofilter with your restaurants name in order to create awareness.

When considering to advertise on Snapchat it is important to recognize the costs associated with each type of plan. Geofilters can be purchased at a minimum of 20.000 square feet to a maximum of 5 million square feet. The advertiser can choose to keep it active for an hour or up to thirty days. Filters start at a cost of $5 dollars, but can change depending on select location. If a marketer would prefer to create a collection of user based content through a live story they must pay a hefty fee of $250,000 dollars a day. During holidays ads can cost up to $750,000 dollars a day.

There is no doubt that with the growing popularity of Snapchat that marketers must now find a way to utilize this took in their marketing plans to stay on top of their given industry. Snapchat has risen to 10th on the Apple App Store download list. As the number of smartphones rise across the globe, the number of users on snapchat is going to rise. The question is not if marketers need to utilize Snapchat as a marketing tool, but what is the best way to do it? Is the best way to spend as a marketer on Snapchat through geofilters, sponsored content in discover, or is it through live stories that they must pay a larger fee for?